Artikkel påbegynt 08.02.2020

Behov for intern standard

Plantedatabasen er avhengige av interne regler for hvilke valg vi skal gjøre mht nomenklatur, av to grunner:

  • for å ikke spre uklarheter og feil
  • fordi databasen selv bruker disse navnene som koblere, og ikke vil fungere om vi ikke har presise regler.

Det er altså ikke det at vi i kommunikasjon om planter i meldinger osv må følge disse reglene. Dette gjelder arbeidet med å vedlikeholde databasen.

Globale standarder

For å starte på toppen: Gjeldende standard for navning og forkortelser er gitt i International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, og kalt The Shenzhen Code. Dette går langt forbi det som er KVANNs behov, men det er greit å kjenne til dette. International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) har gjort en jobb med å forklare dette i mer forståelige termer, og har en liste med relevante forkortelser man kan lese via IAPTs nettsted her:

ad t. ad tabulam, at the plate, used when citing a place of publication associated with an illustration
aff. affinis (affine), akin to, related to
an can it be (that) … ?, often seen preceding a doubtful synonym, mostly in pre-20th-century works
ante before, used when citing a date
ap. see apud
App. Appendix
apud, ap. with, in the work of (equivalent to in, q.v.)
Art. Article
auct. auctorum, of authors, used for a misapplied name
auct. non auctorum non …, of authors, not …, used for a misapplied name, inserted before the name(s) of the original author(s), e.g. “Ficus exasperata” auct. non Vahl
BPH-2 Botanico-periodicum-huntianum, ed. 2
c., ca. circa, circiter, about
cancellans cancelling, used for a corrected page inserted in a book, replacing the cancelled page
cf. confer, compare (imperative)
cl. classis, class; or in some old works it could mean clarissimus, “most illustrious”, preceding a person’s name
comb. & stat. nov., comb. et stat. nov. combinatio et status novi, new combination and name at new rank
comb. in stat. nov. combinatio in statu novo, “combination in new rank”; uncommon, apparently an invention of Werner Greuter, used when the same combination has been published previously at a different rank, and a different combination has been published previously at the same rank, and all three combinations are homotypic (see Art. 6 Ex. 13)
comb. inval. combinatio invalida, “invalid combination”, i.e. not validly published
comb. nov. combinatio nova, new combination
corr. correxit, he/she has corrected
cv. cultivar, but this term is not used when writing a cultivar name (see p. 129)
deest it is missing, used for a missing type specimen
det. determinavit, he/she has determined, followed by a person’s name and date in the annotation of a specimen
Div. Division
DOI digital object identifer, often cited as a URL, e.g.
e.g. exempli gratia, for example
ed. editio, edition
emend. emendavit, he/she has emended, used when the diagnostic characters or circumscription of a taxon are altered without exclusion of the type
epi. epitypus, epitype
et see &
et al. see & al.
etc. et cetera, and the rest
etiam vide see also
ex from, out of, e.g. ex typo, ex-type, used for a living isolate obtained from a algal or fungal type culture permanently preserved in a metabolically inactive state; also used in author citation, e.g. Benth. ex Rchb. (see pp. 96-97)
Ex. Example
excl. gen. excluso genere (exclusis generibus), with genus (genera) excluded, used when the circumscription of a taxon is altered (without exclusion of the type)
excl. sp. exclusa specie (exclusis speciebus), with species excluded
excl. specim. excluso specimine (exclusis speciminibus), with specimen(s) excluded
excl. var. exclusa varietate (exclusis varietatibus), with variety (varieties) excluded
f. forma, form; or filius, son; also figura, figure (but the Code uses fig.)
f. nov. forma nova, new form
fam. familia, family
fam. nov. familia nova, new family
fide by the faith, by the assurance (of), i.e. according to
fig. figura, figure
fl. filius, son (but the Code uses f.)
fo. forma, form (but the Code uses f.)
gen. genus, genus; or gender
gen. fem. cons. genus femininum conservandum, feminine gender to be conserved
gen. masc. cons. genus masculinum conservandum, masculine gender to be conserved
gen. neut. cons. genus neutrum conservandum, neuter gender to be conserved
gen. nov. genus novum, new genus
herb. herbarium, herbarium
holo., HT. holotypus, holotype
hort. hortorum, of gardens, or hortulanorum, of gardeners, sometimes seen in author
HT. see holo.
HTML hypertext markup language
i.e. id est, that is
IAPT International Association for Plant Taxonomy
ib., ibid. ibidem, in the same place
IBC International Botanical Congress
ICBN International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
ICN International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (but not used in the Shenzhen Code and best avoided because it could refer to any one of five biological codes)
ICNCP International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
ICNP International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes
icon, ic. image, i.e. an illustration
ICZN International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
idem the same
IMA International Mycological Association
IMC International Mycological Congress
in in, used in bibliographic citation, e.g. Hance in J. Bot., R. Br. in Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2 (see p. 97)
in herb. in herbario, in herbarium
in litt. in litteris, in letters, in correspondence
in sched. in scheda (schedis), in schedula (schedulis), on label (labels), i.e. on herbarium
in syn. in synonymia, in synonymy; or in synonymis, among synonyms
incertae sedis literally, “of uncertain seat”, i.e. of uncertain (taxonomic) position
incl. including
ined. ineditus, unpublished
IPNI International Plant Names Index (
iso. isotypus, isotype, a duplicate of a holotype
isoepi. isoepitypus, isoepitype, a duplicate of an epitype
isolecto. isolectotypus, isolectotype, a duplicate of a lectotype
isoneo. isoneotypus, isoneotype, a duplicate of a neotype
isosyn. isosyntypus, isosyntype, a duplicate of a syntype
l.c. see loc. cit.
lecto., LT. lectotypus, lectotype
leg. legit, he/she has gathered
loc. cit., l.c. loco citato, in the cited place
LT. see lecto.
m. mihi, literally “to me”, used in the past when an author ascribed a name to himself or herself; also metre(s); also manu, in/by the hand(writing of); also mons, mountain, in Latin text indicating geographical provenance
med. medio, mid, in the middle (in a month or year), used when citing a date
MS., ms. manuscriptum, manuscript
MSS., mss. manuscripta, manuscripts
mut. char. mutatis characteribus, with changed characters, used when the diagnostic characters or circumscription of a taxon are altered without exclusion of the type
n. see no., nob., notho-, and nov.
n.s. new series, in a bibliographic context, e.g. of a journal
n.v. non vidi, I have not seen; or non visus (-a, -um), not seen
nec and not, nor
neo., NT. neotypus, neotype
nm. nothomorph, an obsolete rank-denoting term for a hybrid taxon, now treated as
no., n., nr. numero, number
nob., n. nobis, “to us”, used in the past when authors ascribed names to themselves
nom. alt. nomen alternativum, alternative name
nom. ambig. nomen ambiguum, ambiguous name, of ambiguous application
nom. confus. nomen confusum, confused name, of confused application
nom. cons. nomen conservandum, name to be conserved
nom. cons. prop. nomen conservandum propositum, name proposed to be conserved
nom. dub. nomen dubium, doubtful name, of dubious application
nom. illeg. nomen illegitimum, illegitimate name
nom. illeg. superfl. nomen illegitimum superfluum, name that is illegitimate because it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published
nom. inval. nomen invalidum, “invalid name”, i.e. not validly published
nom. legit. nomen legitimum, legitimate name
nom. non rite publ. nomen non rite publicatum, name not properly (i.e. validly) published
nom. nov. nomen novum, literally “new name”, i.e. replacement name
nom. nud. nomen nudum, naked name, i.e. without a validating description or diagnosis or reference to such
nom. obsc. nomen obscurum, obscure name, of obscure application
nom. prov. nomen provisorium, provisional name
nom. rej. nomen rejiciendum, name to be rejected
nom. rej. prop. nomen rejiciendum propositum, name proposed to be rejected
nom. sanct. nomen sanctionatum, sanctioned name
nom. subnud. nomen subnudum, nearly naked name, i.e. a name for which the description or diagnosis is considered by some to be inadequate for the purposes of valid publication
nom. superfl. nomen superfluum, superfluous name
nom. utique rej. nomen utique rejiciendum, name to be rejected in any case, suppressed name
non not
non designatus not designated
notho-, n- prefx indicating a hybrid taxon, e.g. nothogenus, nothospecies, nothosubsp., nsubsp.
nov., n. novus, nova, novum, new, e.g. comb. nov., nom. nov., sp. nov., stat. nov. (q.v.)
nr. see no.
NT. see neo.
obs. observatio, observation
op. cit. opere citato, in the cited work
ord. ordo, order
orth. cons. orthographia conservanda, orthography (i.e. spelling) to be conserved
orth. var. orthographical variant
p. pagina, page
p.p. pro parte, in part
para. paratypus, paratype
PDF portable document format
post after, used when citing a date
Pre. Preamble
prim. primo, at the beginning, early (in a month or year), used when citing a date
pro hybr. pro hybrida, as a hybrid
pro sp. pro specie, as a species
pro syn. pro synonymo, as a synonym
pro var. pro varietate, as a variety
Prov. Provision (in Division III)
q.v. quod vide, which see
quoad as to, as regards, with respect to
Rec. Recommendation
recte rightly, correctly
s.ampl. sensu amplo, in a large (ample) sense; or sensu amplifcato, in an enlarged (amplifed) sense
s.ann. sine anno, without year
s.coll. sine collectore, without collector
s.d. sine die, without day, i.e. undated
s.l., sensu lato, in a broad/wide sense (the Code uses s.l.); could also mean sea level in statements of geographical provenance
s.loc. sine loco, without locality
s.n. sine numero, without number, used for an unnumbered gathering, e.g. Wallich s.n.; also series nova, new series (equivalent to n.s., q.v.)
s.str., s.s. sensu stricto, in a strict/narrow sense (the Code uses s.str.)
sec. secundum or secus, following, after, according to
sect. sectio, section
sensu in the sense/opinion (of), followed by a person’s name; see also s.ampl., s.l., and s.str.
ser. series, series, i.e. the rank; may also mean a series of a journal, e.g. ser. 2
sero late (in a month or year), used when citing a date
sine without
sp. species, species
sp. nov. species nova, new species
spec. specimen, specimen; also species, species
sphalm. sphalmate, by mistake, mistakenly
ssp. see subsp.
stat. nov. status novus, name at new rank
sub- prefx used in rank-denoting terms, e.g. subfamily, subspecies; also sub, under
subcl. subclassis, subclass
subf. subforma, subform
subfam. subfamilia, subfamily
subg., subgen. subgenus (the Code uses subg.)
subord. subordo, suborder
subsect. subsectio, subsection
subser. subseries, subseries
subsp., ssp.subspecies, subspecies (the Code uses subsp.)
subtr. subtribus, subtribe
subvar. subvarietas, subvariety
syn. synonymum, synonym; also syntypus, syntype
syn. nov. synonymum novum, new synonym, i.e. a taxonomic act when a name is fIrst treated as a heterotypic synonym, or a nomenclatural act when a name is typifed so that it becomes a homotypic synonym
T. typus, type
t., tab. tabula, tablet, i.e. plate, illustration (the Code uses t.)
teste by the witness (of), i.e. according to
TL-2 Taxonomic literature, ed. 2
tr. tribus, tribe
trans. nov. translatio nova, new transfer, i.e. new combination at the same rank (the Code uses comb. nov.)
typ. cons. typus conservandus, type to be conserved
typ. des. typi designatio, designation of type
typus type
URL uniform resource locator, e.g. an internet address
v.s. vidi siccam, I have seen (a/the) dry (plant), i.e. a herbarium specimen
v.v. vidi vivam, I have seen (a/the) living (plant)
var. varietas, variety
var. nov. varietas nova, new variety variety
vel or
vide see (imperative)
vidi I have seen

Arbeidet med KVANNs standard

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